An income statement, also known as a profit and loss statement, serves as a vital financial report that provides a snapshot of a restaurant’s financial performance over a specific period. This report offers valuable insights into a restaurant’s revenue, expenses, and overall profitability. Understanding the income statement is paramount for restaurant owners and managers to make informed decisions and assess the health of their business.
Key Components of an Income Statement
- Revenue & Sales – This represents the heart of a restaurant’s primary operations. For instance, the sales reports from summer sales, in comparison to the previous year, provide valuable insights for management to plan promotional strategies for seasonal items. The item sales report is an excellent tool to filter sales items for promotion.
- Cost of Goods Sold (COGS) – COGS are categorized as the raw materials directly associated with the production of food and beverages, such as groceries, meat, produce, beer, wine, and more. Monitoring COGS is essential for restaurant owners as it directly impacts the gross profit margin. The standard COGS rate for the restaurant business is between 30%-35%. By efficiently handling COGS, it can help prevent spoilage and theft.
- Labor Costs – Labor costs significantly affect the direct profit. Breaking down labor costs by job titles, such as cook and dishwasher for Back of House (BOH) labor, and server, bartender, and busser for Front of House (FOH) labor, provides performance insight for each job. Creating effective scheduling based on these insights ensures consistent and efficient service without overstaffing during slow hours.
- Direct Expenses – These are the operating expenses directly related to a restaurant’s day-to-day operations, such as advertising to promote the business or event, third-party delivery fees, repairs, and maintenance.
- General & Administrative (G&A) Expenses – G&A expenses include various administrative costs, such as dues, subscriptions, computer expenses, licenses, permits, meals, and entertainment.
- Occupancy Expenses – This category includes expenses related to occupying the restaurant space, including rent, common area maintenance, percentage rent, and property taxes.
- Revenue Over (Under) Expenses from Operations – Commonly known as Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation, and Amortization (EBITDA), this figure provides a clear picture of the restaurant’s core business profitability.
A well-structured income statement provides invaluable information about a restaurant’s health. Analyzing the following key metrics helps identify areas of strengths and weaknesses.
- Gross Profit – The gross profit margin reveals how efficiently the restaurant manages its COGS. It helps managers drill down to analyze which COGS items require action, such as negotiating better purchase prices, inventory control, or adjusting pricing strategy.
- Direct Profit – Direct profit reflects how well the management controls its prime costs, including COGS, labor costs, and payroll-related expenses. A successful restaurant typically maintains its direct profit at a minimum of 35%.
If you have any questions about the components of your income statement or need further assistance, please contact our Restaurant team.
About the Author
Valentina Then, Manager
Valentina Then is a Manager at KROST in our Restaurant Business Management department. She has been with the firm since 2018 and has ten years of experience with a variety of restaurant concepts. She focuses on accounting software implementation and financial reporting. » Full Bio